165 лет назад родился Эмиль Берлинер — человек, без которого немыслим сегодняшний мир. Он запатентовал первую грампластинку и придумал устройство, на которой ее проигрывали, назвав его граммофоном.

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Эмиль Берлинер (Emil Berliner) родился в 1851 году в Ганновере в большой еврейской семье. Родители хотели, чтобы он, как и они, работал в текстильной отрасли, но Эмиль стал учиться профессии типографа-печатника, а в 1870 году, спасаясь от службы в прусской армии, эмигрировал в США.

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Поначалу ему пришлось тяжело. Он пробивался случайными заработками, а вечерами запоем читал книги по электротехнике и акустике. В то время в США все буквально бредили электричеством, множество изобретателей и кустарей разрабатывали механизмы, использующие «сказочную новую энергию». Америка уже была покрыта сетью телеграфных проводов.

Сначала Эмиль Берлинер занялся проблемой передачи человеческого голоса на расстояние, однако его опередил Александр Белл: он запатентовал в 1867 году свой телефон. Впрочем, Берлинер не опустил рук, продолжил работу над своим прибором и в 1877 году запатентовал угольный микрофон. Белл был поражен и качеством этого микрофона, и тем обстоятельством, что никому не известный немецкий самоучка разработал столь классный прибор. Белл пригласил Берлинера в свою лабораторию.

Берлинер против Эдисона

В том же 1877 году Томас Эдисон представил свой прибор, который воспроизводил записанное на цилиндр короткое стихотворение, прочитанное им самим. Еще через несколько лет Эдисон разработал и запатентовал фонограф. У фонографа был огромный недостаток: аудиозаписи были уникатами, их было практически невозможно размножить. Кроме того, записанный голос звучал тихо и был сильно искажен.

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Берлинер продолжал работать в лаборатории Белла, и в 1883 году, после того как его братья открыли в Ганновере телефонную фабрику, решил стать самостоятельным предпринимателем и взялся за звукозапись. Берлинер хотел разработать новую технологию, которая позволяла бы легко производить и размножать аудиозаписи. Это удалось ему на удивление быстро: всего за четыре года. В итоге он получил патент на устройство, которое назвал граммофоном. Берлинер, в частности, заменил вращающийся цилиндр Эдисона на вращающийся плоский диск. Чтобы скопировать запись, сделанную на цилиндр, приходилось разгибать его, что приводило к дополнительным дефектам звука. Пластинку Берлинера же не нужно было деформировать.

Второе революционное нововведение состояло в том, что иголка, производящая звук, колебалась в звуковой дорожке Берлинера горизонтально, то есть вправо-влево. Эта звуковая дорожка при увеличении выглядела как волна. Глубина же дорожки была одинаковой. В технологии Эдисона иголка колебалась вверх-вниз, уходя глубоко в цилиндр: чем громче звук, тем глубже уходит игла. Поскольку очень глубоко резать было нельзя, записи получались тихими. На высоких частотах иголка должна была быстро прыгать вверх-вниз, она фактически долбила по звуковой дорожке и быстро ее разрушала. В пластинке Берлинера иголка тоже царапала дно дорожки, но не прыгала вверх-вниз|. Иными словами, пластинка Берлинера звучала громче, чище и была куда более долговечной.

Особенно гордился изобретатель и тем обстоятельством, что грампластинка была гладкая, края звуковой дорожки не были окружены валом из воска, цинка или пластмассы. Берлинер придумал особую технологию удаления вырезанной стружки, чтобы она не прилипала к краям только что нарезанной звуковой дорожки. А звуковые дорожки Эдисона были окружены с двух сторон хаотичным валом из слепившейся и затвердевшей стружки, что сильно ухудшало качество звука.

Знаменитый фокстерьер

Еще несколько лет потребовалось для того, чтобы довести технологию до серийного производства, то есть научиться штамповать грампластинки. Перепробовав массу различных материалов, изобретатель остановился на сложной смеси, в состав которой входил даже конский волос. Материал стали называть «шеллак», хотя привозимый из Индии шеллак служил лишь скрепляющим материалом. Пластинку Берлинер сделал черной, добавив в смесь сначала тушь, а потом сажу. Шеллак легко подвергался обработке и был прочным, хотя и хрупким, конский волос служил как раз для повышения прочности. Придумал Берлинер и новое немецкое слово «Schallplatte», то есть «звуковая пластинка», которое употребляется до сих пор.

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В 1895 в Филадельфии Берлинер основал собственную фирму, которая выпускала и пластинки, и граммофоны. Через три года его братья открыли в Берлине аналогичную фирму, которую назвали Deutsche Grammophon, а пластинки и оборудование производились в Ганновере. Лейбл Deutsche Grammophon существует до сих пор. Это одна из самых знаменитых в мире фирм звукозаписи.

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Весной 1899 года в лондонском отделении фирмы состоялась важная встреча, ливерпульский художник Фрэнсис Барро предложил купить у него картину, которая больше никого не заинтересовала. Барро нарисовал своего фокстерьера Ниппера, который слушает музыку из раструба фонографа. Собака, которая слушает фонограф, казалась абсурдом, хотя Ниппер и в самом деле слушал грампластинки.

Но в фирме оценили идею, попросили заменить фонограф Эдисона на последнюю модель граммофона Берлинера и заплатили художнику 50 фунтов за картину и еще 50 фунтов за право использовать ее. Так родился один из самых знаменитых торговых знаков.. К картине был добавлен лозунг «Голос его хозяина», и это изображение стало рекламным брендом и граммофонов, и шеллаковых пластинок.

Изобретение Берлинера оказалось очень долговечным, без особенных изменений оно просуществовало почти 60 лет, лишь в середине 1950-х годов мир стал переходить на виниловые грампластинки, которые были более прочными, содержали больше музыки и обеспечивали стереозвук.

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Турция отзывает список немецких компаний, подозреваемых в терроризме

 12
Правительство Турции заверило, что отказалось от подозрений в отношении немецких компаний, попавших в черный список организаций, поддерживающих терроризм. Об этом 24 июля министру внутренних дел...
В Швейцарии мужчина напал на прохожих с бензопилой

В Швейцарии мужчина напал на прохожих с бензопилой

 86
В швейцарском Шаффхаузене преступник напал на прохожих прямо на улице. Очевидцы сообщают, что у него в руках была бензопила. Преступник остается на свободе и его...